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링크주소 : Active learning – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Active learning is an umbrella term that refers to several models of instruction that focus the responsibility of learning on learners. Bonwell and Eison (1991) popularized this approach to instruction (Bonwell & Eison 1991). This “buzz word” of the 1980s became their 1990s report to the Association for the Study of Higher Education (ASHE). In this report they discuss a variety of methodologies for promoting “active learning”. While there has been much enthusiasm for active learning, a variety of research studies since the 1990s, has since promoted an important principle: Guidance early, and then practice later is suggested for the best results.[1]

[edit]Active learning exercises

Bonwell and Eison (1991) suggested learners work collaboratively, discuss materials while role-playing, debate, engage in case study, take part in cooperative learning, or produce short written exercises, etc. The argument is when should active learning exercises be used during instruction. While it makes some sense to use these techniques as a “follow up” exercise or as application of known principles, it may not make sense to use them to introduce material. Proponents argue that these exercises may be used to create a context of material, but this context may be confusing to those with no prior knowledge. The degree of instructor guidance students need while being “active” may vary according to the task and its place in a teaching unit.

Examples of “active learning” activities include:

  • A class discussion may be held in person or in an online environment. Discussions can be conducted with any class size, although it is typically more effective in smaller group settings. This environment allows for instructor guidance of the learning experience. Discussion requires the learners to think critically on the subject matter and use logic to evaluate their and others’ positions. As learners are expected to discuss material constructively and intelligently, a discussion is a good follow-up activity given the unit has been sufficiently covered already.[2]
  • A think-pair-share activity is when learners take a minute to ponder the previous lesson, later to discuss it with one or more of their peers, finally to share it with the class as part of a formal discussion. It is during this formal discussion that the instructor should clarify misconceptions. However students need a background in the subject matter to converse in a meaningful way. Therefore a “think-pair-share” exercise is useful in situations where learners can identify and relate what they already know to others. So preparation is key. Prepare learners with sound instruction before expecting them to discuss it on their own.
  • A learning cell is an effective way for a pair of students to study and learn together. The learning cell was developed by Marcel Goldschmid of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (Goldschmid, 1971). A learning cell is a process of learning where two students alternate asking and answering questions on commonly read materials. To prepare for the assignment, the students will read the assignment and write down questions that they have about the reading. At the next class meeting, the teacher will randomly put the students in pairs. The process begins by designating one student from each group to begin by asking one of their questions to the other. Once the two students discuss the question, the other student will ask a question and they will alternate accordingly. During this time, the teacher is going around the class from group to group giving feedback and answering questions. This system is also referred to as a student dyad.
  • A short written exercise that is often used is the “one minute paper.” This is a good way to review materials and provide feedback. However a “one minute paper” does not take one minute and for students to concisely summarize it is suggested[who?] that they have at least 10 minutes to work on this exercise.
  • A collaborative learning group is a successful way to learn different material for different classes. It is where you assign students in groups of 3-6 people and they are given an assignment or task to work on together. This assignment could be either to answer a question to present to the entire class or a project. Make sure that the students in the group choose a leader and a note-taker to keep them on track with the process. This is a good example of active learning because it causes the students to review the work that is being required at an earlier time to participate. (McKinney, Kathleen. (2010). Active Learning. Normal, IL. Center for Teaching, Learning & Technology.)
  • A student debate is an active way for students to learn because they allow students the chance to take a position and gather information to support their view and explain it to others. These debates not only give the student a chance to participate in a fun activity but it also lets them gain some experience with giving a verbal presentation. (McKinney, Kathleen. (2010). Active Learning. Normal, IL. Center for Teaching, Learning & Technology.)
  • A reaction to a video is also an example of active learning because most students love to watch movies. The video helps the student to understand what they are learning at the time in an alternative presentation mode. Make sure that the video relates to the topic that they are studying at the moment. Try to include a few questions before you start the video so they will pay more attention and notice where to focus at during the video. After the video is complete divide the students either into groups or pairs so that they may discuss what they learned and write a review or reaction to the movie. (McKinney, Kathleen. (2010). Active Learning. Normal, IL. Center for Teaching, Learning & Technology.)
  • A class game is also considered an energetic way to learn because it not only helps the students to review the course material before a big exam but it helps them to enjoy learning about a topic. Different games such as jeopardy and crossword puzzles always seem to get the students’ minds going. (McKinney, Kathleen. (2010). Active Learning. Normal, IL. Center for Teaching, Learning & Technology.)

[edit]Active learning method: Learning by teaching (LdL)

An efficient instructional strategy that mixes guidance with active learning is “Learning by teaching” (Martin 1985, Martin/Oebel 2007). This strategy allows students to teach the new content to each other. Of course they must be accurately guided by instructors. This methodology was introduced during the early 1980s, especially in Germany, and is now well-established in all levels of the German educational system.[3] “Learning by teaching” is integration of behaviorism and cognitivism and offers a coherent framework for theory and practice.

[edit]Active learning and Policy

Policy may be satisfied by demonstrating the instructional effectiveness of instruction. Educational rubrics are a good way to evaluate “active learning” based instruction. These instructional tools can be used to describe the various qualities of any activity. In addition, if given to the student, they can provide additional guidance (here is an example rubric).

In the past few years outcome-based education policy has begun to limit instructors to only using those techniques that have been shown to be effective. In the United States for instance, the No Child Left Behind Act requires those developing instruction to show evidence of its “effectiveness.”

[edit]Research supporting active learning

One study has shown evidence to support active learning.[4] Bonwell and Eison (1991) state that active learning strategies are comparable to lectures for achieving content mastery, but superior to lectures for developing thinking and writing skills.[5]

According to another study by Armstrong (1983), students who receive a formal education learn better when they are actively engaged in the learning process as opposed to those who do not partake in the learning process.[6] In addition to that, Armstrong (2012) provided some examples of active tasks as writing papers, problem-based projects, and experiential exercises (e.g., role-playing).[7]

[edit]See also

[edit]Notes

  1. ^ Renkl, A., Atkinson, R. K., Maier, U. H., & Staley, R. (2002). From example study to problem solving: Smooth transitions help learning. Journal of Experimental Education, 70 (4), 293–315.
  2. ^ McKeachie, W.J., Svinicki,M. (2006). Teaching Tips: Strategies, Research, and Theory for College and University Teachers. Belmont, CA. Wadsworth.
  3. ^ Jean-Pol Martin: Zum Aufbau didaktischer Teilkompetenzen beim Schüler. Fremdsprachenunterricht auf der lerntheoretischen Basis des Informationsverarbeitungsansatzes. Dissertation. Tübingen: Narr. 1985; Jean-Pol Martin, Guido Oebel (2007): Lernen durch Lehren: Paradigmenwechsel in der Didaktik?, In: Deutschunterricht in Japan, 12, 2007, 4–21 (Zeitschrift des Japanischen Lehrerverbandes, ISBN 1342-6575)
  4. ^ Joel Michael. “Where’s the evidence that active learning works?”. Advan.physiology.org. Retrieved 2012-11-17.
  5. ^ Active Learning: Creating Excitement in the Classroom. ERIC Digest, Bonwell & Eison, 1991.
  6. ^ J. Scott Armstrong (1983). “Learner Responsibility in Management Education, or Ventures into Forbidden Research (with Comments)”.Interfaces 13.
  7. ^ J. Scott Armstrong (2012). “Natural Learning in Higher Education”. Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning.

active learning means active engagement and understrshijoup.

[edit]References

  1. ^ Renkl, A., Atkinson, R. K., Maier, U. H., & Staley, R. (2002). From example study to problem solving: Smooth transitions help learning. Journal of Experimental Education, 70 (4), 293–315.
  2. ^ McKeachie, W.J., Svinicki,M. (2006). Teaching Tips: Strategies, Research, and Theory for College and University Teachers. Belmont, CA. Wadsworth.
  3. ^ Jean-Pol Martin: Zum Aufbau didaktischer Teilkompetenzen beim Schüler. Fremdsprachenunterricht auf der lerntheoretischen Basis des Informationsverarbeitungsansatzes. Dissertation. Tübingen: Narr. 1985; Jean-Pol Martin, Guido Oebel (2007): Lernen durch Lehren: Paradigmenwechsel in der Didaktik?, In: Deutschunterricht in Japan, 12, 2007, 4–21 (Zeitschrift des Japanischen Lehrerverbandes, ISBN 1342-6575)
  4. ^ Joel Michael. “Where’s the evidence that active learning works?”. Advan.physiology.org. Retrieved 2012-11-17.
  5. ^ Active Learning: Creating Excitement in the Classroom. ERIC Digest, Bonwell & Eison, 1991.
  6. ^ J. Scott Armstrong (1983). “Learner Responsibility in Management Education, or Ventures into Forbidden Research (with Comments)”.Interfaces 13.
  7. ^ J. Scott Armstrong (2012). “Natural Learning in Higher Education”. Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning.

[edit]Further references

[edit]External links

 

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